Epithelium

  1. a. Define the term "Mesothelium".

       

    b. Define the term "Endothelium".

       

    c. Define the term "Serosa" including where it is found and how it is made up.

       

    d. Define the term "Basement Membrane" including where it is found and how it is made up.

       

  2. Select an image with a button. Then, in the box below, characterize the epithelium at the free (top) surface, or that marked with an arrow in the image on the left.

    The definition is:  

       

  3. Which of the following characterize epithelium as a tissue?
    (Check the correct responses.)
    It has a free surface
    Its cells are closely apposed, with little intercellular space between them
    It is separated by a basal lamina from connective tissue
    It lacks vascularization
    It is not innervated
       
  4. Compare the fine structural features of microvilli, cilia and stereocilia.

       


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Connective Tissue

  1. Check the boxes corresponding to the statements that are correct.

    Metachromasia is a change in color due to a dye binding to a molecule in an ordered manner.
    A glycoprotein is a protein modified with long unbranched carbohydrate side chains that are generally sulfated.
    A proteoglycan is a protein modified with short, branched carbohydrate side chains.
    Tropocollagen is the mature collagen triple helix formed by removal of registration peptides.
    A phagocyte is a cell that produces immunoglobulins.
       
  2. A. Describe the chemical nature of the intercellular materials in connective tissue.

       

    B. What cells produce these substances?

       

  3. A. Where is "Procollagen peptidase" found, and what is its function?

       

    B. Where is "Proline hydroxylase" found, and what is its function?

       

    C. Where is "Lysyl oxidase" found, and what is its function?

       

  4. What is the mononuclear phagocyte system? What cell types are included and what is their origin?

       


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Muscle

  1. Concerning the distinguishing characteristics of the three types of muscle:-
    (Check the correct responses.)

    Unlike striated muscles, smooth muscle uses microtubules and kinesin to generate a contraction force.
    Calveoli are found on smooth and cardiac muscle cells
    Intercalated disks are found in any striated muscle that has a high, continuous work load.
    Skeletal muscles have different myosins depending on the function of the muscle.
    Cardiac muscles communicate electrically via gap junctions.
       
  2. Where is smooth muscle located? Name at least four general sites, one of which responds to hormonal signals.

       

  3. Describe the organization of connective tissue in relation to skeletal muscle. What staining techniques could you use to distinguish between the two tissues.

       

  4. How many types of filaments are present in skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscle? Then ....

       

    ... list where they insert in each type of cell.

       

  5. Explain the changes in the banding pattern when a skeletal muscle fiber is stretched or contracted.

       

  6. Do all muscle cells and their derivatives have contraction as their primary function?

       

  7. What cells, other than muscle cells, contain contractile elements?

       

  8. Slow-twitch muscle fibers have a supply of ATP provided by as can be clearly seen in electron micrographs. These fibers also appear red in colour due to the fact that they contain relatively high levels of which is an intracellular carrier of oxygen. They unlike the fast-twitch oxidative fibers which depend on respiration and are typical of the gluteal muscles of .

       

  9. Sorry. We're skipping question 9.

  10. Starting with "1", type into the boxes the order into which the following statements should be placed to describe the initiation of skeletal muscle contraction. Ignore statements that are false.

    Release of acetylcholine into the synaptic cleft.
    Drop in sarcoplasmic Ca++ concentration.
    Depolarization of the sarcolemma.
    Activation of the Ca++ release channel.
    Depolarization of a motor axon.
    Phosphorylation of the myosin light chain causing the initiation of force generation..
    Transmission of the depolarization into the T-tubule system.

       

  11. Describe the role of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) with respect to the myosin ATPase cycle including how the signal to contract is transmitted from the SR to the myofilaments.

       

  12. Describe the mechanisms of control of contraction in striated and smooth muscles at the level of the molecular interactions.

       

  13. Describe how the signal to contract is transmitted from the neuromuscular junction into a skeletal muscle cell.

       

  14. What is the homolog of the T-tubule in smooth muscle?

       

  15. Some cardiac muscles have an endocrine function? Which ones? What is their endocrine function?

       


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Skeletal Tissues

((NOTE: For these questions to "work" you must be using a browser that supports in-line frames. Netscape 4.x does not, so please don't use it. IE v5, Netscape v6 (and some others) do.))

1.   Definition of terms: ...

a. Define the term "chondroblast".


b. Define the term "chondrocyte".


c. Define the term "perichondrium".


d. Define the term "osteoblast".


e. Define the term "osteocyte".


f. Define the term "osteoclast".


g. Define the term "osteoprogenitor cell".


h. Define the term "periosteum".


i. Define the term "endosteum".


j. Define the term "osteon".


k. Define the term "hydroxyapatite".

6a. Describe the sequence of events in endochondral bone formation.

   

6b. Describe the sequence of events in intramembranous bone formation.

   

8. Indicate.which of the following are involved in endochondral bone formation (EBF) and which are involved in intramembranous bone formation (IBF).
(Check the correct responses.)

EBF IBF
Bone is deposited on calcified cartilage
Bone is deposited within connective tissue
Bone is deposited upon bone
Periosteal bud formation
Matrix vesicles serve as initial sites of calcification
   


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Circulatory

  1. For each of the vessels in the list, match its characteristics from the panel beneath.

    Sinusoids in the liver
    Capillary in the back of the hand
    Arteriole in the tongue
    Capillary in the mucosa of the ileum
    Venule in a skeletal muscle
    The Endothelium is...
    Fenestrated.
    Continuous.
    Discontinuous.
    Pericytes wrap the vessel at its narrowest.
    Smooth muscle layer is well developed.
    Smooth muscle layer is tenuous.
    Endothelial cells make tight junctions.
    The basement membrane is...
    Continuous.
    Discontinuous.
    Synthesized only by the endothelium.

       


  2. Where are capillaries found outside of connective tissue?


  3. How is the dural sinus constructed? How does it compare with venous vessels of approximately equal size in the leg?

       


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The Nervous System

  1. Concerning nerve cells:

    In/on the ... You would find ...
    soma
    axon
    dendrite
    nissle substance
    axon hillock
    synapses
    neurokeratin
    axoplasm
    neuropil
    microtubles

       



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The Respiratory System

  1. Describe the chemical composition of surfactant. What are the possible functions of the surfactant proteins?

       


  2. Lets test some facts about the respiratory tree: There are lobar bronchi on the right and on the left with layers of smooth muscle forming the muscularis mucosa (inside the cartilage rings.) There are approximately generations of branching from the trachea to the alveoli of which there are typically million. Roughly speaking, bronchioles are usually less than mm in diameter and terminal bronchioles are less than mm. More than half of the alveola wall has a capillary underneath it and this results in each alveolus being surrounded by more than erythrocytes. Amazing, huh?
       


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The Urinary System

  1. List the structures through which blood entering the kidney through the renal artery would pass to and through a glomerulus...

    Now, list the path for blood out of a glomerulus to the renal vein in the case of ...


       

  2. Where would you find the following in kidney, be specific?
    Replace the names in the boxes with their locations.

     
     
     
     
     

  3. Describe in detail the ultrastructural organization of the proximal convoluted tubule cell and relate it to transport and degradation of small molecules and macromolecules in the primary filtrate.

       

  4. Discuss the barriers presented by the glomerulus to the passage of macromolecules into the primary filtrate.

       

  5. Describe the organization and possible functions of the juxtaglomerular apparatus.

       

  6. Describe the segments of Henle's loop, collecting ducts and associated blood vessels in the kidney medulla and their general role in urine concentration.

       

  7. Describe the changes in the mucosa of the bladder during distention and contraction.

       


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Lymphoid Tissue and Hematopoiesis

  1. The following cells are found in lymph nodes.
    (Indicate True or False)
    True False
    Lymphocytes
    Macrophages
    Red blood cells
    Megakaryocytes
    Reticular cells
    Hassals corpuscles
       

  2. Check the boxes corresponding to the statements that are correct.

    A polychromatic erythroblast is more mature than an orthochromatic erythroblast.
    Monocytes circulate and are the precursors of microglia in the CNS and macrophages in other tissues.
    Afferent lymphatic vessels enter the capsule of the LN at the hilus.
    Arterial blood vessels enter the LN at the hilus.
    T and B cells are found in the periarteriolar lymphoid sheath of the spleen.
    The supporting tissue of lymph nodes, spleen and thymus is reticular connective tissue.
       

  3. Define the following terms:-
    Replace the names in the boxes with the definitions..

     
     
     
     
     

  4. Discuss the origin, structure and function of platelets.

       

  5. What are the major roles of neutrophils and monocytes in the inflammatory process?

       

  6. Describe the circulation of blood through the spleen and its lymphatic drainage.

       

  7. Check all cell types that make reticular fibers.
    Reticular cells
    Epithelioreticular cells
    Fibroblasts
    Smooth muscle cells
    Schwann cells
    Chondrocytes
       


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Digestive Tract

  1. Where in the epithelium of the organs of the digestive tract would you primarily find the following cells?
    Replace the names in the boxes with the definitions..

     
     
     
     
     

  2. Where in the organs of the digestive tract would you primarily find the following structures?
    Replace the names in the boxes with the definitions..

     
     
     
     
     


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Skin and Integument

  1. Compare thick and thin skin as to structure, function and location.

       

  2. Compare the secretory portions and ducts of apocrine, eccrine and holocrine (sebaceous) glands as to structure, function and location.

       

  3. Name, in order, the layers of the epidermis in thick skin from basement membrane to free surface. Describe the ultrastructural changes occurring in keratinocytes as they move from the basal layer to the cornified layer. Approximately how long does this process take?

       

  4. Compare the structure and function of the various sensory receptors associated with skin.

       


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Sensory Organs

  1. In the eye, through what layers must light pass to reach the rods and cones?

       

  2. What are the functions of horizontal, amacrine and Müller's cells?

       

  3. What are the structures and functions of the cupula, otolithic membrane, and tectorial membrane?

       

  4. Indicate which structures contain   endolymph,   perilymph   or   air:
      endolymph     perilymph     air  
    Scala tympani
    External ear canal
    Scala vestibili
    Membranous labyrinth of the semicircular canals
    Endolymphatic duct and sac
    Middle ear
    Scala media
    Eustachian tube
       

  5. Blood vessels are (not) found in the following layer(s) of the retina and structures of the eye:
      Found     Not found  
    Ganglion cell layer
    Choroid
    Layer of axons of the ganglion cells
    Photoreceptors
    Inner plexiform layer.
    Optic nerve
       

  6. Which of the following are (not) found in the eye and optic nerve:
      Found     Not found  
    Oligodendrocytes
    Schwann cells
    Astrocytes
    Microglia
    Muller cells
    Sustentacular cells
    Multipolar neurons
       

  7. There are cells in the retina that detect light and, thereby, most probably contribute to the establishment of a circadian rhythm. These cells are (True/False):
      True     False  
    Rods
    Cones
    Retinal ganglion cells
    Muller cells
    Astrocytes
    None of these
       


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Digestive Glands

  1. Describe the functions of the duct system of the extramural digestive glands. Correlate these functions with their morphology at the LM and EM level.

       


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Endocrine System

  1. Give three examples of organs that have both exocrine and endocrine functions. Name the endocrine cell type and give its secretion.

       

  2. What are the general organizational features of the endocrine glands with respect to ....
    Replace the text with your response



       

  3. What is the functional role of...

     
     
     

  4. What is the functional role of lipid droplets in zona fasciculata cells of the adrenal cortex? What organelles are involved in steroid hormone biosynthesis?

       


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Male Reproductive System

  1. Name, in order, the stages of spermatogenesis and describe the ultrastructural morphology of the developing sperm at each stage. At what stages do changes in ploidy occur?

       

  2. How does the testis maintain a reserve population of type A spermatogonia?

  3. What are the predominant cell types associated with the prepubertal seminiferous tubule? What changes occur at puberty?

       

  4. Describe the changes in the blood flow of the penis during erection and detumescence. What is the major vascular pathway when the penis is flaccid? What is the role of the smooth muscle in the walls of the helicine arteries? Review the innervation of the corpus cavernosum.

       

  5. I'm so good I can tell the difference between ....
    Gallbladder Seminal Vesicle Oviduct

  6. Check the features that typify these structures.
    Vas Deferens Ureter
    Transitional epithelium Transitional epithelium
    Pseudostratified epithelium Pseudostratified epithelium
    Simple columnar epithelium Simple columnar epithelium
    Single muscle layer Single muscle layer
    Multiple muscle layers Multiple muscle layers
    Inner longtitudinal muscle layer Inner longtitudinal muscle layer
    Abundant elastic fibers in the lamina propria Abundant elastic fibers in the lamina propria
    Modifies the fluid that passes through. Modifies the fluid that passes through.
       


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Female Reproductive System

  1. It is four days after the LH surge during a normal menstrual cycle. What would be...

     
     
     

  2. Which cells in the female reproductive system produce the following steroid hormones:

     
     
     

  3. How many layers of follicle cells surround a primordial follicle?

  4. Describe the appearance of the placental trophoblast during the third trimester of pregnancy. Which cells are producing hCG at this time? What is the barrier between maternal and fetal circulations?

       

  5. Describe mammary gland epithelial cells during lactation. What hormones control the differentiation of the gland cells to secretory competence? What type of secretion (holocrine, merocrine or apocrine) do the cells carry out? What is the role of oxytocin in lactation?

       


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